There are couples that have few, or inexistent, chances of having a successful gestation using their own eggs. This happens mainly when the womanâ€™s oocytes do not have the necessary quality to get pregnant, or when there are no oocytes left, or when she is a carrier of a chromosomic or genetically transmitted disease.
The best solution for these couples is to use the oocyte of a donor in an In Vitro Fertilization (FIV).
Normally It would start with the preparation of the Endometrium of the receiver initially with estradiol pills and later with progesterone, the same hormones that participate in the natural preparation of an endometrium for the reception of an embryo. Sometimes other hormones that inhibit ovulation may be needed to avoid interference with the cycle preparation.
Oocyte donation is a technique that gives excellent results because the oocyte come from healthy young women.
The chances of obtaining a successful pregnancy after transferring the embryos from such a donor are higher than 50%.
- Advanced age of the mother: the chances of a successful pregnancy greatly diminish with age.
- Early menopause or early ovarian failure. Absence of ovaries: congenital or after surgery.
- Failure of previous FIV cycles: insufficient embryos, low qualityâ€¦
- Genetic diseases: hereditary diseases that cannot be avoided with the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).
The legal terms of the use of donated oocytes for reproduction are contained in the â€śLey de ReproducciĂłn asistidaâ€ť and the annexed regulations. Some interesting aspects contained in these terms are:
â– Oocyte donation has an altruistic, voluntary and anonymous nature, it is therefore prohibited for the receiver to choose or suggest the donor. The users of these technique and their descendants have the right to request general information about the donor but they may not, under any circumstances, be informed about the identity.
â– Donors must be between 18 and 35 years old and they can be accepted only after the mandatory tests and analysis ascertain that they do not carry any disease that can be transmitted to the descendants or the receiver.
â– The maximum number of pregnancies that can be obtained from the gametes of a single donor is 6, including the descendant born without need of assisted reproduction.